Hypertension or high blood pressure leads to many changes in the blood vessels of the body. These same changes in blood vessels affect the eyes in many ways. It can cause the following problems in the eye:
- Hypertensive retinopathy
- Branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) / Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) and vitreous hemorrhage
- Optic nerve involvement (Optic neuropathy)
Many of these conditions may not have any symptoms in the initial stages. Therefore it is important to have a periodic eye checkup to detect these. Branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) may lead to a blurring of vision especially for fine work. A vitreous hemorrhage may lead to a more severe loss of vision associated with a shower of red floaters.Optic neuropathy may also lead to a loss of vision, which is painless and not associated with any floaters.Paralysis or weakness of the muscles of the eye leads to restriction of movement of the eye and double vision.
Branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) is a condition that is commonly associated with high blood pressure and changes of hypertensive retinopathy. This condition may lead to loss of vision by two mechanisms:
- Macular edema (swelling of the region of macula): Macula is the central region of the retina and is important for seeing fine details. A swelling in this region leads to a decrease in vision. This condition can be treated by doing laser and / or intravitreal injection of steroids/ avastin
- Vitreous hemorrhage: Sometimes the BRVO may lead to formation of new vessels in the retina. These vessels are abnormal and are very fragile. These may bleed and result in vitreous hemorrhage and thus loss of vision. A timely detection of these new vessels can be treated by doing laser therapy as well as injections of Avastin in the eye.However if the bleeding into the eye is severe it needs surgery (Pars Plana Vitrectomy) to remove the blood.
Yes. The patient can have changes of both the diseases together. In fact, presence of hypertension may lead to exacerbation of the changes due to diabetic retinopathy. Therefore it is important to control the blood pressure in a patient with diabetic retinopathy.